Beekeeping tasks this month – January


It’s January – the middle of the winter, is there anything I should be doing as a beekeeper this month?

The following list was published by Dr. John A. Skinner (Professor & Apiculture Specialist @ UT) in the Beekeeping in Tennessee publication from UT (PB 1745), and is available at the following URL:

Seasonal Management: January

• Clean, paint and repair equipment.

• Check the apiary for wind and animal damage.

• On a warm, sunny day, check the honey stores and feed, with a candy board, any colonies that have less than 15 pounds (six frames of capped honey in a shallow super or two to three frames in a deep super). Note, this is an emergency feeding to prevent starvation and not recommended for colonies with adequate stores. Do not disturb the cluster of bees. The hive can be lifted from the rear to estimate stores. On a warm, sunny day, the top can be removed to see the adult cluster size.

Posted in Honey Bee How to, Learn about Bee Keeping, Seasonal | Leave a comment

Syrup Delivery: an overview of honey bee feeders

So let’s say that you’re now convinced that you do need to feed your honey bees.  You go buy some sugar, mix it with some water, and you want to feed it to your bees.  But how do you get it to them?  That’s actually a slightly more complex question than you might think.  Let’s take a look at some of your options (listed in no particular order) for delivering liquid syrup to your bees along with the pros and cons of each.  NOTE: The more stars given in a category, the better that feeder is in that category.

Summary Chart:

FeederEase of useRobbingDrowningInspectionsCapacityCost
Bag Feeder4stars5stars5stars1stars3stars3stars
Hive-top Mason Jars3stars5stars5stars4stars3stars3stars
Boardman Entrance Feeder3stars1stars5stars5stars1stars3stars
Division-board Feeder3stars5stars2stars3stars4stars3stars
Hive-top Feeder3stars5stars3stars1stars5stars1stars
Bucket Feeder5stars5stars5stars3stars5stars4stars
Open Feeding5stars1stars2stars5stars5stars4stars

1) Bag Feeder

baggie_feeder  baggie_feeder2

Method:  Take a gallon ziploc bag, fill it with sugar and water (at ratios to make your desired consistency of syrup), zip closed, shake to mix.  Place the bag of syrup on top of the top-bars of the top box on your hive, use a needle to make holes or a razor blade to make 1-2 inch slits on the top of the bag.  The syrup will stay in the bag, but is accessible for the bees to drink from.  Put a 2 or 3 inch spacer on top of the hive to make room for the bag.

Ease of use: beebeebeebee Bag feeders are very light-weight and easy to setup and use… if you’re feeding lots of hives, mix syrup on-site w/ a hose if possible to save on lugging full bags around.  Cleanup is fairly easy too… just throw it away when you’re done.  Not that great if you have much concern for the environment though.

Robbing: beebeebeebeebee Robbing is pretty much a non-issue with bag feeders.  They’re internal to the hive and generally do not cause or initiate robbing.

Drowning: beebeebeebeebee It’s fairly rare for bees to drown from a bag feeder simply because there are no open pools of syrup for them to drown in.

Hive Inspections:bee You pretty much can’t do inspections while you’re feeding with a bag feeder.  You have to wait until the bag is empty (or mostly empty), then take if off to do your inspection.

Capacity: beebeebee If you put much more than 3 qts. of liquid syrup into a bag feeder, you’ll start having leakage problems.

Cost: beebeebee Gallon ziploc bags are cheap, but not permenant… so you’re always buying more as you go through them.  Using them also requires you to have a spacer or an empty super on top of the hive.

NOTE: In early spring, bag feeders require the bees to “break cluster” in order to climb up on top of the bag to get syrup.

2) Hive-top Mason Jars

Close up of Inverted Canning Jars used to feed bees syrup over winter in Backyard Beekeeping   mason_jar_feeder_hivetop02

Method:  Fill a mason jar (any size you want) with sugar & water and mix to create syrup.  Use a hammer & a small nail to poke aprox 10-15 holes in the top of the lid.  Invert the jar over the hive so that the bees can access the holes in the lid.  Cover with an empty super so that robbers cannot access and so that the sun does not shine directly on the jars.  Syrup is “licked” out by the bees over time… it does not continually drip out of the holes because of a vacuum is created above the syrup in the inverted jar.

Ease of use: beebeebee Mason jars can be a bit awkward & clunky to tote around… I’d recommend carrying them in a 5 gallon bucket if you’re going to be moving more than 2 or 3 at a time.  But they are easy enough to setup and use once on-site.  Be sure you hide them from direct sunlight or they’ll get hot and squirt syrup out.

Robbing: beebeebeebeebee Robbing is pretty much a non-issue with inverted mason jars.  They’re internal to the hive and generally do not cause or initiate robbing.

Drowning: beebeebeebeebee It’s pretty much impossible for bees to drown from an inverted mason jar feeder simply because there are no open pools of syrup for them to drown in.

Hive Inspections:beebeebeebee In order to do inspections you must remove the mason jars from the top of the hive.  This is a fairly small inconvenience but still of note.

Capacity: beebeebee Quart jars are the most common size jar for feeding.  For small amounts of feed this is perfect (i.e. when feeding nucs), but when you’re wanting to deliver several gallons of syrup in a short amount of time, quart mason jars just a little more trouble than they’re worth.

Cost: beebeebee Mason jars aren’t terribly expensive, and you can frequently find used jars for sale on craigslist… but they’re still a notable up-front cost.  Using them also generally requires you to have an empty super on top of the hive.

NOTE: Mason jars can be set directly on top of the top-bars of the frames… therefore the syrup can be in direct contact with the cluster.  In early spring this can be a huge advantage.

3) Boardman Entrance Feeder

boardman_feeder  boardman_feeder2

Method:  Fill a mason jar (any size you want) with sugar & water and mix to create syrup.  Use a hammer & a small nail to poke aprox 10-15 holes in the top of the lid.  Place the filled jar into the boardman entrance feeder, and slide the feeder into the entrance of the hive.  This also works on the inversion-vacuum principle and does not allow syrup to continually drip out.

Ease of use: beebeebee Again, mason jars can be a bit awkward & clunky to tote around… I’d recommend carrying them in a 5 gallon bucket if you’re going to be moving more than 2 or 3 at a time.  But they are easy enough to setup and use once on-site.

Robbing: bee Robbing is one of the worst problems with boardman entrance feeders because they’re located right at the entrance of the hive – a place robbers already frequent.  Boardman entrance feeders can initiate larger-scale robbing, not only of the hive you’re trying to feed but of other hives in your apiary (once bees get going, it can be hard to get them to stop).

Drowning: beebeebeebeebee It’s pretty much impossible for bees to drown from a boardman entrance feeder simply because there are no open pools of syrup for them to drown in.

Hive Inspections:beebeebeebeebee Boardman entrance feeders are a non-issue when it comes to inspections because they’re all the way on the bottom.  However, if you’re going to be taking the bottom box off you’ll need to make sure to take the feeder off first… or it will likely fall.

Capacity: bee You’re very limited in terms of capacity with a boardman entrance feeder.  You’re pretty much stuck with quart jars or smaller… one at a time unless you buy multiple boardman attachments so you can feed multiple jars simultaneously.

Cost: beebeebee Mason jars aren’t terribly expensive, and you can frequently find used jars for sale on craigslist… but they’re still a notable up-front cost.  Also, you’re going to have to purchase the boardman feeder attachment for every jar you want to feed, but they’re not too expensive either.

NOTE: Boardman entrance feeders are not useful for early spring feeding as bees have to break cluster to run down to the entrance to get syrup.

4) Division-board Feeder

division_board_feeder       division_board_feeder2

Method:  Division-board feeders take the place of frames inside your hive.  Take 1 or 2 frames (depending on the width of your feeder) out of your hive and set to the side.  Place the feeder in the hive in the empty space.  Mix up syrup in another container (make sure it has a spout or something to pour with) and pour into the division-board feeder.  Close up the hive and do something with the extra frames.

Ease of use: beebeebee Division-board feeders aren’t terrible to get setup initially or maintain.  They do take up frame space, and this must be considered when calculating the size of the hive.  Cleanup and movement of the feeder between hives is quite disruptive to the colony since it always involves removing or adding frames to a colony.  Refilling also requires opening up the hive.

Robbing: beebeebeebeebee Robbing is a virtual non-issue with division-board feeders as they are internal to the hive and no syrup is ever required to leave the front door.

Drowning: beebee Drowning has historically been a problem with division board feeders because of the open pools of syrup they hold.  Many designs now employ ladders or floats to help with this, but drowning can still occur.

Hive Inspections:beebeebee Division-board feeders are not in the way too much when you’re doing inspections, but because most are made of plastic you do have to be careful not to damage them while prying propolized frames and feeders apart or moving boxes around.

Capacity: beebeebeebee Most division-board feeders hold between 1 and 2.5 gallons.  They can give some fairly decent capacity if you need to deliver a lot of syrup in a short period of time.

Cost: beebeebee Division-board feeders are mid-range in terms of cost (usually between $8-$15 plus tax & shipping), but when you consider capacity they do end up being cheaper than some other options.


5) Hive-top Feeder

hive_top_feeder01 hive_top_feeder02 hive_top_feeder03


Method:  There are lots of different styles of hive-top feeders, but they all have in common that they hold a reservoir of syrup that rests on top of the top box, and they cover the entire top of the hive.  You set the feeder on top of the hive, pour syrup into the reservoir, and the bees come up via some apparatus to drink it.

Ease of use: beebeebee Hive-top feeders aren’t terrible to get setup initially or maintain.  Refilling is not disruptive to the bees at all, and can be done without opening up the hive.  The feeder will get propolized down to the hive, so be prepared to do some prying to get it off.

Robbing: beebeebeebeebee Robbing is a virtual non-issue with hive-top feeders as they are internal to the hive and no syrup is ever required to leave the front door.

Drowning: beebeebee Because most all hive-top feeders are designed differently drowning rates can vary greatly.  Some hive top feeders have eliminated almost all drowning issues whereas others still have problems.

Hive Inspections:bee Hive-top feeders are about the worst in this category simply because they’re right on top of the hive, which is exactly where you need to get to in order to do your inspections.  Some hive-top feeders can be quite difficult to work with when they’re still holding syrup and they’re propolized to the top-bars.

Capacity: beebeebeebeebee Most hive-top feeders hold between 2 and 5 gallons and usually provide easy simultaneous access for a large number of bees.  They almost always give very decent capacity if you need to deliver a lot of syrup in a short period of time.

Cost: bee Hive-top feeders are pretty costly compared to most feeders (anywhere from $15-$30 plus tax & shipping)… you’re really paying for capacity + speed of feeding.

NOTE: Please note also that hive-top feeders tend to squish a variable number of bees when you’re doing inspections and replacing the feeder (some feeders are worse than others).  Also, they’re not a good early-spring feeding option as bees will have to break cluster to crawl up and get the syrup.

6) Bucket Feeder

bucket_feeder01  bucket_feeder02

Method:  Fill an empty bucket with sugar and water to make syrup.  Use the smallest drill bit you can find to drill 20-30 small holes in the lid of the bucket near the center.  Put the lid on the bucket and invert it over the top of the hive – directly on the frame top bars or over the top of the inner cover (both work just fine).  Cover with an extra super or hive body.  The syrup does not leak out because of the same vacuum principle that is employed with the inverted mason jar feeders.

Ease of use: beebeebeebeebee Bucket feeders are about as easy as it comes.  Simple to work with, carry / transport, fill, and clean.  They do require an extra super or two to cover them up though.

Robbing: beebeebeebeebee Robbing is a virtual non-issue with bucket feeders as they are internal to the hive and no syrup is ever required to leave the front door.

Drowning: beebeebeebeebee Because there are no open pools of syrup, drowning is a non-issue with bucket feeders.

Hive Inspections:beebeebee Bucket feeders are a small inconvenience when doing inspections as they must be removed from on-top of the hive, but this is almost always a very minor task.

Capacity: beebeebeebeebee Bucket feeders can hold 2-5 gallons depending on how big of a bucket you decide to employ.  They provide easy simultaneous access for a medium number of bees.  They are one of the go-to feeders if you need to feed a lot of syrup in a short period of time.

Cost: beebeebeebee There are commercial 1, 2, and 3 gallon bucket feeders available that usually run around $5-$7, but my walmart sells used 2 and 3 gallon icing buckets at the bakery counter for $1 so I always go that route.

NOTE: Because bucket feeders can be set directly on the frame top bars, it can put syrup in direct contact with the cluster in early spring for stimulative feeding.

7) Open Feeding

open_feeder  open_feeder02

Method:  Fill one or more very large containers (5 gallon buckets, a feed trough, livestock watering tub, a children’s swimming pool, a large hole in the ground lined with a tarp) with syrup, then ensure that drowning will not be a problem.  With large pools this is typically done with a layer of straw, hay, or styrofoam peanuts on top of the syrup.

Ease of use: beebeebeebeebee One of the huge advantages to open feeding is that it’s really easy.  You’re not messing with each hive individually… you can feed everyone at once.

Robbing: bee Open feeding both initiates and perpetuates robbing behavior in bees.  This is a huge draw-back to open feeding.

Drowning: beebee This varies based on what method of open feeding you’re employing, but in-general anything with an open pool of syrup is going to cause a good bit of drowning no matter how well you cover it.

Hive Inspections:beebeebeebeebee There is nothing at all to remove or replace for an inspection when using open feeding.  The structure of the hive’s woodenware is completely unaffected.

Capacity: beebeebeebeebee How big of a container do you want to use?  You’ll likely be limited by the amount of syrup you want to make / buy before you run out of capacity.

Cost: beebeebeebee Per hive, you usually can’t beat open feeding.  A $15 kid’s swimming pool is a cheap way to feed 100 hives.

NOTE: Most hobby or small-scale commercial beekeepers simply don’t run the numbers of hives that would demand open feeding.  Also… note that you end up feeding more than just your bees with open feeding – wasps, yellow-jackets, bumble bees, and all kinds of other insects love to eat your syrup too.

Posted in Bee Keeping Equipment, Honey Bee How to, Learn about Bee Keeping | 2 Comments

Time to feed!

This has been a pretty good year in my bee yard as far as nectar flows go, but when I started inspecting a few days ago to decide which hives need feeding I was surprised that there is less honey in my hives than I thought there would be.  You might also find that you need to feed some of your hives to prepare for winter now that our nectar flows are pretty much all over for the year.

Experienced beekeepers can get a fair idea of which hives need feeding by picking up on the back of the hive to see if it is “light” or not – but if you do not yet have this skill the best thing to do is to inspect.  How much honey you want to find is going to depend on the size of the hive configuration and the population, but a strong single box colony of any size from nuc on up to 10 frame deep needs to have about 2/3 of the comb filled with stores – BTW in our climate colonies as small as 5 frame mediums can overwinter just fine if they are in good shape.  More honey stores certainly won’t hurt anything, but when cold weather rolls around your bees actually need some empty comb in the center to cluster on – so don’t feed to the point of all available space being filled.

You will want to be feeding heavy syrup at this time of year – it will be less work for you and your bees to get it in the hives and cured before the weather turns cold.  So 2-1 or perhaps 5-3 sugar syrup.  Those numbers refer to weight of sugar/water so…

  • 2-1 syrup = 2 pounds of sugar per each pound of water.
  • Conveniently a pint of water weighs about a pound.
  • You will usually need to use hot water to mix heavy syrup.
  • It takes about 3 pounds of sugar mixed into syrup to fill one medium frame with cured winter feed.

This is not the time to feed a little at a time – put as much of the required feed on your hives at one time – and keep it on – as is practical so that they can go ahead and get it in the hives and configured how they want pretty quickly.  You might want to give them a little bit of top ventilation to facilitate curing the feed and to prevent excessive hive moisture – but don’t accidentally create an unguarded top entrance which might aggravate robbing.

Robbing is very possible and even likely at this time – populations are large, and forage is quickly disappearing from the environment so…

Don’t spill syrup

  • Reduce hive entrances.
  • Don’t expose the interiors of hives any more than you have to.
  • Don’t leave burr comb, frames or any other sources of honey exposed in the apiary to be robbed out.
  • Consider installing robber screens – here is a simple how to build robber screens resource.


Posted in Evergreen, Honey Bee How to, Seasonal | Leave a comment

Varroa Mite Management Options for Honey Bees


Life Cycle of Varroa Mites – Thanks to Tony Linka for permission to use this excellent illustration.

This article was originally published in November 2013, but contains seasonally relevant information.  In other words – It is time to treat your bees for varroa mites.

“You need to be doing something proactive to deal with mites whether you treat or not.”  (paraphrased) Kaymon Reynolds – treatment free beekeeper for 10 years.

This post is intended to present the available options for varroa mite management in as factual and unvarnished form as is possible – and is not intended as an endorsement of any particular technique.   This information is only intended to inform.  Any apparent bias or spin is unintentional – but probably inevitable what with me being human and all.  I highly recommend that you educate yourself on whatever path you choose to take – and don’t be too quick to completely believe anything you hear from any one source.

  • Varroa infestation is a major factor in many hive failures.
  • Hives which seem to have failed from queenlessness, wax moths, hive beetles, robbing, absconding, or even starvation may actually have mites as a root cause of their eventual demise.
  • Beekeepers often do not detect mites or spot symptoms of Parasitic Mite Syndrome until it is extremely advanced.
  • Varroa mites vector viral diseases while also sapping the strength of the parasitized individual bees – resulting in “sick hives” which fail to thrive and often eventually collapse.  Collapsing hives are usually robbed out which can spread both mites and associated diseases to the robbing colonies.
  • Queens are not immune to these viral diseases – non-lethal viral infections of queens can be a cause of poor brood production and supercedure – either of which may result in colony failure.
  • Ignoring the varroa mite problem and failing to manage it in some way will almost always result in catastrophic colony loss.
  • Treatment Free beekeeping and just hoping for the best while doing nothing are NOT the same things.

Queens are not immune to varroa infestation and the diseases that mites carry.

Timing of Treatments

  • If you are going to treat for varroa mites timing is important.
  • You should not treat when honey supers are on hives – April-July.  Some treatments are actually approved for use when supers are on, but in order to preserve the public faith in our product it is important that bee keepers avoid the very appearance of evil.  Don’t treat or feed your hives when honey supers are on.
  • It is important that mite populations be low before and during the fall brood build up – September – Mid November.  Without management this is when mite levels usually peak.
  • Hives which have large mite loads going into winter are likely to fail before spring.
  • TN State Apiary experts recommend a late winter / early spring treatment – Late Feb – Early March.
  • It is often recommended by treatment manufacturers that only strong hives be treated (some treatments can be stressful) so it is important to treat before hive health is in decline.
  • Hives are generally broodless during Late November – Early December.  Treating during this period will be maximally effective.
  • If you wait until symptoms of varroa infestation become apparent colony health will already be compromised.
  • Effective treatments which are properly applied during the correct times and conditions will greatly improve colony survival and performance.  Improperly applied treatments performed at the wrong time on weakened colonies may be worse than doing nothing.
  • In summary the key times to treat are: July/August before the fall brood build up starts.  November/December during the broodless period before winter.  February/March before the honey season starts.

Is your skin crawling yet?

The Hard/Soft chemical fallacy

  • People often refer to synthetic miteacides as “Hard” chemicals and naturally occurring ones as “Soft.”  In some ways this characterization is the opposite of the truth.
  • During the treatment period synthetic treatments are often less likely to cause bee mortality or queen loss. Care must be taken with some so called “Soft” treatments to prevent killing bees or causing hives to abscond. Some of the “Soft” treatments are extremely temperature dependant – too cool and it doesn’t work, too warm and it kills bees.
  • The effective synthetics are able to kill a high percentage of mites in the hive because they are time released or remain effective long enough to kill mites which are inside of capped brood at the initial treatment time.  Naturally occurring treatments do not all have this advantage – some require repeated applications at specific time periods to be effective.
  • Any treatment is most effective if used when hives are broodless.
  • Synthetics may leave long lasting / permanent residues in the hive – especially in wax.  These residues seem to cause fertility problems for both queens and drones, and detractors speculate that they may be factors in long term hive health problems.  ** Naturally occurring miteacides such as formic acid or thymol do not leave long lasting residues in hives – but if not carefully applied they can kill bees during treatment.
  • Mites have developed a resistance to some synthetics which has made them ineffective in most cases – Apistan for example – but because they have fallen out of favor and are used much less frequently now, there are some reports that low and behold they sometimes work well for occasional use.  They are however still implicated in health compromising long lasting hive residues.

Rotate Treatments

No matter which treatments you decide to use to prevent mites from developing resistance  it is probably best if you don’t get in the habit of always using the same one all the time.

 EPA regulated Synthetic mite treatments 

  • Apivar/amitraz – currently reported to be extremely effective.  One application of 2 strips required. About $6.00 per treatment. No evidence of resistance after more than 15 years – no application temp recommended (that I know of)  Apivar Instructions and Info
  • Apistan/fluvalinate – Mites have developed a resistance to this treatment in many areas – but it may be effective for limited use because it has widely fallen out of favor.
  • Checkmite/coumaphos – Mites have developed a resistance to this treatment in many areas – but it may be effective for limited use because it has widely fallen out of favor.
  • Randy Oliver on Synthetic Treatments

EPA regulated naturally occurring mite treatments

  • Miteaway Quick Strips / formic acid ***– can kill mites inside of capped brood as well as phoretic mites – Only 1 treatment required.  Requires careful application with attention to temp and hive strength to avoid bee and brood mortality – can result in queen loss if miss used. Daytime Temp of 50 – 90 F specified on day of treatment, but bee/brood mortality increases with temp. $4.70 per treatment. Miteaway Instructions
  • Apilife Var / Thymol and other EO – Very safe time release delivery.  Requires 3 treatments to be effective if brood is present – Use when average daytime temps are between 59 and 69 F.  About $3.65 per treatment. Apilife Instructions
  • Apiguard / thymol ***– Safe, low bee or brood mortality – but does cause bearding and interruption of brood rearing for a few days.  Requires 2 applications at warm to high temperatures – 60 /100° F.  Requires a spacer – About $3.60 per treatment. Apiguard Instructions
  • Hop Guard – Not approved in TN.

 Treatments which are effectively not regulated by the EPA but which are known to be work

  • Powdered Sugar Dusting – 30 / 50% effective only on phoretic mites, can cause death of open brood by simply gumming it up. Scientific Beekeeping
  • Essential Oils – EO of Thyme and  EO of Spearmint are known to be effective as miteacides – appropriate dosages and methods of application have been widely experimented with by beekeepers but are difficult to specify. Several commercial products such as Honey-bee-healthy and Mann Lake Pro Health contain these ingredients, but because of EPA guidelines can not be labeled or specifically recommended for varroa management.  ******Drenching with Honey-bee-healthy as per label directions is probably the varroa treatment method that the researchers would like to recommend if they could.
  • ****** Oxalic Acid – Oxalic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid which quickly breaks down and leaves no residue in hives. Even though it is EPA registered OA is effectively unregulated in the United States, but it is a widely used government approved mite treatment in the rest of the world.  OA is safe, effective, cheap and not temperature dependant.  OA causes little if any bee / brood mortality. OA does not kill mites inside of capped brood, so it is most effective when used on broodless hives.  Since OA is widely used abroad dosages and application methods are well established.  3-4 Pennies per treatment.

 Treatment free

  • “Treatment Free” bee keeping is an often misunderstood and controversial subject on the Internet.
  • Treatment free beekeeping apparently IS possible. More beekeepers report successfully practicing treatment free beekeeping every year.
  • Essential oils, and powdered sugar dusting are mite treatments – if you use these then you are not treatment free.
  • The essence of the treatment free philosophy is to not treat, let the hives which can’t hack it die, and then make increase from the remaining “Survivor” bees – the so called Bond method.   In practice it is much harder than it sounds, and many beginners who take this overly simplistic approach fail utterly and lose interest in beekeeping.
  • Successful treatment free beekeeping requires bees which have the ability to survive to begin with.  There is apparently no reliable source of such bees.  You can get bees which are more resistant than others (****USDA VSH or Minnesota Hygenic queens for example) but based upon my personal experience it is quite difficult to just buy “Survivor” bees.
  • However  BeeWeaver Apiaries in Texas have been producing treatment free queens, bees and honey  for more than 10 years now.  There are mixed reports from consumers – including some reports of aggressive bees – but that is typical for any queen producer, and apparently BeeWeaver will replace aggressive queens.   So, while this is not an endorsement they might be worth checking out if you are interested in going treatment free.
  • Making increase is probably an absolutely essential part of treatment free beekeeping.
  • If you want to try treatment free you should probably prepare for high colony losses – 50% or more in some cases.  Hopefully less, but don’t fail to plan.
  • You can probably not reasonably expect to be successful with very few colonies – larger numbers give more fault tolerance and a better gene pool.
  • Treatment free does not mean doing nothing – if anything treatment free beekeepers need to be more competent and diligent beekeepers to meet the challenges.
  • There does not seem to be a very large number of treatment free beekeepers who are able to report success beyond being able to keep their bees alive from year to year.   This  statement is not based on any kind of scientific data collection, but rather from an informal Q+A thread on beesource forum.
  • It is possible (and likely in my opinion) that some locations may not be conducive to treatment free beekeeping. Or at least that some areas may be much better than others.
  • Randy Oliver on varroa resistant bees.


* Outlaw Treatments – The use of any EPA regulated insecticide in a manner or form other than that which is approved “and specified on label” by the EPA is a violation of federal law.  For example in the past commercial apiaries have been (heavily) fined for using paper towels soaked with  Mavrik (fluvalinate which is labeled for use  as an outdoor pesticide) as a mite treatment.  Even though fluvalinate is EPA approved for apiary use in the much more expensive form of Apistan (no longer effective on Varroa mites BTW) the off label apiary use of the same chemical when packaged as Mavrik is a violation.  Non-regulated substances such as essential oils, powdered sugar, and ******oxalic acid either fall through one loophole or another or exist in something of a gray area depending on how you describe their use.

** The makers of Apivar (amitraz) claim that their product “Leaves no significant residues in hive honey or wax.”  And that mites are showing no signs of resistance after 15 years of field use. The source should be taken into account when considering these claims.

*** When stinky treatments like formic acid or thymol are applied the bees will start fanning to ventilate the hive.  Weak hives may not have enough bees to do the job and may abscond or suffer losses.  Generally these treatments are not recommended for weak hives.

**** VSH, and other breeds with hygienic behavior are not the elusive “Survivor Bees” that you might hear being mentioned – Because these traits are quickly watered down in open mating environments.  The true “survivor bees” apparently breed true enough for the trait to accumulate in the local gene pool to a useful degree during open mating.  Nonetheless VSH is a good place to start until you can acquire some of the magic bees.

***** Other Key Management Practices for keeping Hives Healthy

  • Healthy hives are more resistant to mites and disease and more resilient when they are effected, so strive to maintain good practices.
  • Do your inspections – until you have a good bit of experience the only way to tell what your hives need is to inspect at least every 2 weeks during the season.  If you can not make time for this during your first few years you might want to reconsider your choice of hobbies.
  • Prevent Queenlessness – this is probably the number one cause of hive loss. If you don’t inspect at least every 2 weeks you often won’t have time to correct queenlessness before it is too late.
  • Don’t let your bees go hungry – bees which are suffering from malnutrition will never be healthy.  Any time that hives do not contain Plenty of both capped honey and open nectar they should be fed.  Ideally hives would never run short of natural food, but we do not live in an ideal region for that – most years here in mid TN bees need to be fed.
  • Prevent robbing – Robbing cause’s malnutrition, stress, and queenlessness. I highly recommend the use of robber screens.
  • Extra colonies – One hive is absolutely not sustainable – two is marginal – four or five (including nucs) is probably the minimal number of hives for a reasonably sustainable apiary.  Besides, nucleus colonies are a lot more fun than big honkin’ honey hives – everyone should keep a few nucs.
  • Having extra colonies will allow you to be more objective when deciding between cutting your losses and trying to save a failing hive.
  • Split and make increase every spring – Combine in the fall – It will make you a better beekeeper and will give you the resources that you need to recover from setbacks, and to improve your stocks.
  • Always keep some empty extra equipment on hand – assembled and ready to use – nucs, frames with foundation, supers, robber screens etc.
  • Be Prepared – procure supplies such as feed, medication, equipment before you need it.
  • Integrated Pest Management  – IPM is more or less the use of cultural practices to manage pests and minimize the use of treatments.  Key to varroa IPM is measuring mite loads on a regular and timely basis so that you know when something needs to be done instead of simply treating prophylactically on a seasonal basis.  Randy Oliver on IPM

****** Oxalic acid along with some essential oils exist in something of a limbo regarding EPA enforcement – they may be (and probably are) technically not legal to use,  but for some reason the EPA does not seem to be interested in enforcing a broad moratorium on them.  Possibly because they have bigger fish to fry, or maybe because they are taking the completely reasonable position of looking the other way for now when it comes to safe, effective treatments that don’t seem to hurt the environment, users,  or consumers.  Perhaps they have an internal  interpretation of the rules which allow their use in some cases.  Maybe they just haven’t noticed yet.  But I’m no expert so Caveat Emptor.

*******Honey-Bee-Healthy  Drench: one cup, 8 ozs (237 ml) of 1:1 Sugar Syrup with 4 tsp of HBH/qt (20 ml/l), applied 3 times, 7 days apart. We fed  bees at the same time with 10 ml of HBH per liter of 1:1 sucrose syrup.

Oxalic Acid Nutritional Supplement for Immune Support of Honey Bee Colonies

Oxalic Acid Vaporizer




Posted in Evergreen, Honey Bee How to, Learn about Bee Keeping, Short Course | 3 Comments

Summer Beekeeping in TN

Honey harvest time is upon us – your beekeeping hobby could produce enough honey to not only be self supporting, but also make a profit. But it is a year-round task to keep your bees healthy and productive.

The fun is (mostly) over and the Hard work begins – Summer separates the beekeepers from the wannabeekeepers,  It’s hot, and many recreational options are much more appealing than putting on a bee suit, but what you do (or don’t do) over the next 3 months will mostly determine if you are still a beekeeper next spring.

If your hives  have honey that you plan to harvest then you need to do so ASAP so that you can proceed with other summertime beekeeping tasks – especially mite treatments.

Your bees almost certainly have some mites, but if you have brood that looks like this:

Then you almost certainly have a high mite load which requires immediate action if you want to save your hives.

If your proactive plan to manage varroa mites includes mite treatments – which I reccomend – then you need to plan now to complete those treatments no later than August 15 so that you can have relatively healthy bees to execute the fall build up which starts around the first of September.

There are several Varroa Mite Management Options which you should read about at that link, but if you want to skip all that I reccomend Apiguard for summer treatments.  Apiguard requires multiple treatments which span 4-6 weeks – which is why you need to act soon.  You will need to use a spacer to make room for apiguard treatments between the boxes as per the instructions – the spacer could be just 4 strips of thin wood or plywood laid around the perimeter between the boxes or it could be one of these shims from Mann lake.  Or if you have woodworking tools you can make a shim – I use 1 1/2″ shims that I also use as feeder shims for winter feeding of sugar and pollen sub candy.   Just so you know – Your bees will probably build some burr comb in the space created by the shim – which you will have to scrape off when the treatments are over.

Whenever beekeepers says “honey supers” what they are usually talking about are supers from which you plan to harvest honey during the current season.   If you don’t plan to harvest honey this year then you don’t have to worry about it with apiguard, if you were planning to harvest honey this year you should do so before applying your mite treatments.  If you ever do need to remove supers which contain stores for any period longer than overnight the only way to store them safely is in a freezer – otherwise they are almost certain to become infested with hive beetle larva.

If your hives are not well established yet you may need to continue feeding through summer and fall – you can only tell for sure by doing your inspections.  If you have more than one hive in the same area you will probably need to take action to prevent robbing – robber screens work better than anything else which I have tried.

Do your inspections - keep them queenright, and feed any hives that do not contain at least 15 pounds of stores consisting of significant amounts of BOTH open nectar and capped honey, plan NOW to treat for mites  –  If you only do those things your bees a much more likely to survive and thrive.

Remember that there will not be a regular Meeting in July, but don’t slack off on your beekeeping.  Summer beekeeping may not be all that fun, but it will make a huge difference in the long run.



Posted in Seasonal | 1 Comment

Plastic Foundation – Love it, or hate it?

I’m not at all iffy about my preference for plastic foundation, and here is one very big reason why:

A used plastic frame

The old comb has simply been scraped off of this used plastic frame – nothing else was done to it.

This frame wasn’t washed or waxed – no sugar water, honey-bee-healthy or anything else was applied.

Once you scrape off any old comb all you have to do is put such a frame back into a reasonably strong hive, which needs more comb, while a decent flow is on, and 2-3 weeks later:

New comb built on a used plastic frame.

Used Plastic frame after 2 1/2 weeks in a strong hive, which needs comb, during a good flow.

Pretty much like new.  The picture at the top of the page is the same frame at the end of May – full of honey which is just beginning to be capped.

Notice that while the frame in the picture is solid plastic I actually do not prefer solid plastic FRAMES – for various reasons.   My personal preference is for plastic foundation in wooden frames.  I have given all of the main options – foundationless frames, wax foundation, plastic foundation, plastic frames, even frameless top bars – pretty fair trials in my apiary as you can see from the motley variety in the picture.  I don’t throw things away just because I decide I prefer something else.  It all works if you give it a chance.

Notice the qualifiers:

  • reasonably strong hive
  • which needs more comb
  • while a decent flow is on – feeding is a poor substitute at best.

You must have all 3 conditions to get plastic foundation efficiently drawn into comb – if even one is missing results will be slow and disappointing – and if you try to push it they may build wacky “snakey” comb which is at right angles to the frames.  Under less than ideal conditions you are probably more likely to get comb drawn on wax foundation or on foundationless frames – however in less than ideal conditions the bees sometimes just EAT wax foundation instead of drawing comb on it.

In case you are wondering our main spring flows are almost over by now – Early June.  Late April – early June is the usual time to get comb built in our area.


Posted in Bee Keeping Equipment, Learn about Bee Keeping | 2 Comments

What to do when you are Queenless

This article was originally published in May 2013, but this issue comes up like clockwork every year…

You think your hive is queenless – you can’t spot the queen, and you don’t see any eggs.  What now?

First, don’t panic.  Next, if at all possible give the hive a frame of young open brood or eggs from another hive – aren’t you glad you have more than one?  If the hive really is queenless, then it will start queen cells on the frame of brood right away, and they will be easy for even a novice to spot within 3 days.

If they don’t try to start queen cells on a fresh frame of brood during Spring through Fall then they already have a queen.   If they do already have a queen they WILL NOT accept a new queen – no matter how much you pay for it.

Just about the only ways to be sure that a hive is really and truly queenless is to do the frame-of-brood thing or to actually remove the queen yourself.  Looking for the queen doesn’t do it – even an experienced queen spotter can fail when it really matters.

Also, giving an actually queenless hive a frame of open brood will help to prevent it from developing a laying worker – I think I already said that, but still…

Any hive will benefit from a donated frame of brood.

The reason that you might think that a hive is queenless when it really isn’t is that while a queenless hive will pretty much always try to make a new queen it takes about 24 days more or less for that new queen to develop, get mated, and start laying eggs.  For many people – myself and my 50 yr old eyes included – it will be another week before there is brood which is easy to spot.  So almost a month between becoming queenless and easily spotting brood.  During that time all of the eggs that the previous queen laid will emerge leaving the hive completely broodless after 24 days – all of the worker brood emerges in 21 days leaving only capped Drone brood.  This can make you think that you have a laying worker or drone laying queen.

Whenever in doubt – give any possibly queenless hive a frame of open brood.

Timeline of Queenlessness

No brood of any kind, population weak, laying workers, SHB, robbers, or wax worms taking over – queenless too long to save in my opinion. Shake it out – it’s a lost cause.

No brood of any kind but population strong- hive has been queenless for over three weeks – at least 24 days. If the population is still strong and you can see where they have cleaned out comb for a queen to lay eggs in there is probably a queen that either hasn’t started laying yet, or has laid eggs that you are not spotting. Giving it a frame of brood is good luck anyway.

Capped Drone brood only – hive has been queenless for just about 3 weeks.

Lots of capped worker brood, but no open brood at all – queenless for about 1 1/2 – 2 1/2 weeks.

Open larva but no eggs or young brood – Queenless 6-8 days. You should find capped queen cells in a hive like this.

If I Made a hive queenless then I usually try to leave it alone for about 3-4 weeks if I can remember exactly when I did it. I need to keep better records I know. If I find one that looks like it has been queenless for only a couple of weeks or less I look for cells and then leave it alone for a couple of weeks. I always give a hive which has been queenless for over 3 weeks (little if any worker brood)  a frame of young brood from another hive to see if it builds new cells or so as to confirm if it is still queenless – and to ward off laying worker.

Remember – it takes a hive about 12 days to raise a queen, but it takes that queen another week to harden up and get mated, and then another week to start laying.  Then it might be another week before you can spot any brood.  About a whole month from start to finish to produce an easy to find laying queen.

But it only takes a few minutes to give a hive a frame of brood – and avoid disaster.

And by the way – you will not hurt the donating hive by stealing one frame of brood from it – even if you do it every week for a while.  If it bothers you then plan to pay it back once you get the other hive queenright and healthy again.

Posted in Honey Bee How to, Learn about Bee Keeping | 2 Comments

Be Careful with your Queen Excluder

Almost every beginning beekeeper has a queen excluder that came with a kit – and almost everyone is anxious to deploy it so that they can get a super or two of nice pristine honey without any brood to worry about.  To everything there is a season, and your first year with bees is not the time to use your excluder – at least not like that.

Every year I get a question or run across someone who is wondering why their bees won’t go through their queen excluder – to get to the super of bare foundation sitting on top.   Well the short answer is that they probably never will.   Bees don’t really like to go through a queen excluder anyway, but if there isn’t anything above it that they want (bare foundation) then they almost surely won’t – unless the hive is absolutely cram packed with bees, in which case they are more likely to swarm than to go through an excluder to get to foundation.

As a general rule don’t use a queen excluder until after you have enough comb drawn out to fill your brood boxes and at least 1 honey super.  Then you can put the excluder between the brood chamber and the honey supers – with drawn comb in them – and the bees are much more likely to co-operate.   Although even then they make the hive more likely to swarm.

If you do want to use them so that you don’t have brood in your honey supers you can wait until most of the honey flow is over to add the excluder – say around May 20 or so, after the poplar and locust bloom are about over. Then any brood above it will emerge and the comb will get back filled with honey. As long as you get the queen below it that is.

If you use a queen excluder during the honey flow it will be more work to keep your bees from swarming. But it will also make it so that you have fewer boxes to inspect for queen cells.

It seems that a lot of hobby bee keepers don’t use them anymore – but commercial honey producers mostly do – I think.  If you use an excluder it won’t really make your bees produce less honey – not so you would notice anyway – but they may store more of it below the excluder therefore you won’t have to feed them as much.

As long as they are not out of room below they will be very reluctant to go through an excluder – which is kind of alright, because they will get the brood boxes fully stocked with honey before they go up into the supers.   Which is actually a good thing about the old tried and true method of using deep brood and shallow honey supers with an excluder always between them – if there is any honey in the supers that is yours, all honey below the excluder stays with the hive. It made it an easy call for new bee keepers and also results in pretty white honey combs that don’t have brood cocoons in them – for what that’s worth.

Queen excluders are just a tool, and like any tool can be useful if used correctly, but can be counterproductive if misused.   Because of this many people call them honey excluders, but research indicates that is not really the case.

Posted in Bee Keeping Equipment, Honey Bee How to, Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Swarm Prevention – Cut down Splits

If you have looked into your hives in the last few days it is very likely that you have seen signs of swarm preparation – rows of queen cups on the bottom of frames, dense populations, nectar choked hives with little room for the queen to lay in, lots of drones in all stages of development – maybe even swarm cells.

The next few weeks will make or break your beekeeping season, and if your bees take to the trees they won’t be working for you any more.   Swarm prevention is tough – especially if you don’t have drawn comb to work with.  A Cut Down Split does not require a stock of drawn comb.

Timing is critical – Now Is The Time to do a Cut Down Split – about 2 weeks before the likely beginning of our main flow.

When it comes to swarm prevention it is folly to claim a 100% guarantee on anything, but a cut down split – correctly done – is close, and does not sacrifice your honey crop.

In a cut down split you cut down all of the queen cells and then remove the queen and most of the open brood from the original hive to a new location.  Then (in theory) the Queenless hive in the original location doesn’t swarm because it doesn’t have a queen or swarm cells.  Because it also doesn’t have much open brood to feed the nurse bees and young bees which will soon emerge join the already large workforce of foragers and a large honey crop – and drawn comb – will be produced.  The hive will produce an emergency queen from eggs or open brood which are bound to be present on the capped brood frames you leave in the hive.  So, you get a good honey crop, and a new queen (produced at the ideal time) without any further swarm management after doing the split.

The queenright hive (which you place in a new location in the apiary) won’t swarm because it doesn’t have a workforce to swarm with – with one caveat, It must not have any swarm cells when you make the split, or it is likely to swarm anyway.

You have to find and eliminate all of the swarm cells from both halves of the split for this manipulation to work as planned and prevent them from swarming.  Tips – without using much smoke, unstack the hive all the way down to the bottom board, add an empty hive body, then examine and replace every frame one at a time after shaking almost all of the bees off.  If you use too much smoke on the uninspected boxes you will push the bees downward, and by the time you get to the bottom there will be masses of bees to deal with.

Posted in Honey Bee How to, Seasonal, Swarms | 4 Comments

Queens For Pennies

April is prime time for making increase (at least it is when there isn’t a cold front blasting through) and while splitting hives is simple, effective and helps to manage swarming – you might also be interested in giving queen rearing a try.  Now is the time to go for it if you are.

Randy Oliver has a new article on his website Queens For Pennies which details a simple and rather unique method for producing a bunch of queen cells from your very best one queen – very little special equipment required compared to other ways to go about it.  This article also has a very good illustration of how to graft with a Chinese tool.  You really should check it out.

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